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ABSTRACT

A portable wireless eye movement-controlled Human-Computer Interface which can be used for the disabled who have motor paralysis and who cannot speak in multiple applications (such as communication aid and smart home applications) is described here. This Interface consists of four major parts:

  1. Surface electrodes
  2. A two-channel amplifier
  3. A laptop (or a micro-processor)
  4. A ZigBee wireless module.

Horizontal and vertical Electro-Oculography (EOG) signals are measured using five surface electrodes placed on the head .The vertical electrodes are placed about 1.0 cm above the right eyebrow and 2.0 cm below the lower lid of the right eye, the horizontal electrodes are placed 2.0 cm lateral to the each side of outer canthi and the last electrode is placed on user’s forehead to serve as a ground. The two-channel amplifier is comprised of instrumentation amplifiers, band-pass filters and shift circuits. The EOG signals are sampled at the rate of 250Hz and then sent to a laptop or a micro-processor for signal processing which is based on the method of mathematical morphology to recognize the direction of eye movements and voluntary eye blink. The ZigBee wireless communication technology, which is proved to be reliable, low-power and cost-efficient, is used in the portable interface. This interface provides a flexible method for the disabled to improve the life quality.

INTRODUCTION

Persons with severe diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), brainstem stroke, brain or spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophies, multiple sclerosis, etc., have difficulty conveying their intentions and communicating with other people in daily life. With the development of Human-Computer Interface (HCI), methods have been developed to help these people for communication. Unlike traditional HCIs (a keyboard, or a mouse, etc.), modern HCIs have played an important role in the area of rehabilitation.

 HCIs can be divided into cortical (all interfaces that exploit information collected from the human brain cortical relays) and non-cortical (all interfaces that do not access the signals generated by the human cortex directly). In the present study, we describe a novel portable wireless eye movement-controlled HCI for the disabled. This interface is a real-time communication control system based on EOG signals.

There are two main differences between our system and others mentioned above:

  1. Designing and implementing a mathematical morphology method to preprocess original EOG signals.
  2. Including a wireless module based on the ZigBee protocol to increase the scope of applications (communication aid, smart home applications, etc.) of this system.

SYSTEM OVERVIEW

The system we have developed consists of four major parts:

  1. Five surface electrodes
  2. A two-channel amplifier,
  3. A laptop (or a micro-processor)
  4. A ZigBee wireless module.

 seminar topics on electronics

Overview of the EOG-based wireless Human-Computer Interface Seminar topics

Fig 1 is the schematic diagram of this system and the whole system adopts the star topology which is also used. In this system, horizontal and vertical EOG signals are measured by five surface electrodes placed around eyes. After a two-channel amplifier, the EOG signals are sampled at the rate of 250 Hz and then sent to a coordinator node which is connected with a laptop or a micro-processor through ZigBee wireless communication technology. The software on the laptop or micro-processor recognizes the direction of eye movement and voluntary eye blinking. Programs (typewriter, patient assistant software, etc.) in laptop or remote devices (TV, lamps, telephone, etc.) can be controlled by the recognized results.

ELECTRODES AND THE PRINCIPLE

The cornea of the eye is electrically positive relative to the retina of the eye and the potential is slowly varying when eyes move. The standing potential can be measured by electrodes placed around the eyes. The EOG value varies from 0.05-3.5 mV with a frequency range of about 0-100 Hz. In this paper, there are five electrodes in all which are classified as horizontal, vertical and reference (ground) electrodes. As showed in Fig 1, the vertical electrodes are placed about 1.0 cm above the right eyebrow and 2.0 cm below the lower lid of the right eye, the horizontal electrodes are placed 2.0 cm lateral to the each side of outer canthi. And the last electrode is placed on user’s forehead to serve as a ground.

If the eyes move left, horizontal EOG (HEOG) signal which is the difference between signals collected by electrode HEOL and HEOR acquires a positive voltage value. If the eyes turn right, HEOG signal changes into a negative voltage value. Identically, if the eyes move from the central position towards upside, vertical EOG (VEOG) signal which is the difference between signal collected by electrode VEOU and VEOL acquires a positive voltage value. If the eyes move downside, VEOG signal changes into a negative voltage value. An eye blinking can be described by EOG signals as a peak in VEOG but a flat in HEOG. We can distinguish the voluntary and involuntary blinking by the value and duration of the peak mentioned above.

FUTURE SCOPE OF THIS SEMINAR TOPICS

Four thresholds which are measured in advance were set manually at the initialization stage of the software. Clearly, it is time-consuming and may result in unnecessary errors. Later  evelopment should make the thresholds set automatically through a test program before use. Meanwhile, the thresholds can be updated during test period auto-adaptively according to the user’s current state. For instance, the amplitude of the EOG signals would change slowly in the latter stage because of fatigue. The current signal process program is implemented on a laptop which also provides user interface on the screen. If we do not need user interfaces (e.g. controlling remote devices), the process program can be carried out only in a micro-processor which is integrated in the coordinator node. Then the processed results were sent wirelessly to the remote device which is attached with a ZigBee reception node.

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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