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In the mechanized and the fast-moving world of today, the consumption of petroleum products has become an important yardstick of a country’s prosperity. Despite the discovery of new sources of non conventional energy, petroleum remains the primary energy sources of non conventional energy petroleum remains the primary energy source in India, and even more so, all over the world. The consumption of petroleum in the world, which started as a few tones a year around 140 years ago, has reached over 3000 Million metric tones (MMT) per year! Even in India, it is increasing at a very steep rate from 3.5 MMT in 1950-1951 to 130 MMT in 2001-2002. This is expected to reach 175 MMT in 2006-2007. In view of this, one of the methods to combat the crisis of fossil fuels is to use alternative renewable fuels for I.C. Engines, which is, by far, the major consumer of fossil energy. With appropriate proportions of the available sources of renewable fuels (even blended with fossil fuels), it is possible to optimize the engine performance with respect to efficiency and particulate emission.

In this presentation topics on alternative fuels for mechanical engineering field, Pungamia piñata oil is chosen as an alternative fuel to run a C.I engine. In this work experimental investigations were carried out on a one cylinder, four-stroke water-cooled diesel engine coupled with rope dynamometer. The experiments were conducted for various combinations of Pumgamia piñata with diesel, by preheating Pumgamia piñata to an elevated temperature of 60°C and it is observed that 40 % blending is found efficient when compared to pure diesel or other blends of the oil. The flue gas was also studied for the analyzing the performance of the engine using flue gas analyzer.


Ever since automotive engines came to existence there has been continuous research to improve the working of IC engines with intentions of increasing efficiency and reducing pollution. The combustion process is the most important event of the engine cycle as it controls power output, efficiency and exhaust emission. Our Country imports about 70 per cent of its crude requirements, worth about Rs.78000crore per annum, which is equivalent to about 25 % of the total export earnings of the country. Apart from the problem of fast vanishing reserves and irreplaceable nature of petroleum fuels, another important aspect of their use is the extend and nature of environment pollution caused by their combustion in vehicular engines. In view of these problems of fast dwindling reserves of petroleum fuels and hazard of environmental pollution caused by their combustion, the urge for alternative fuels to alleviate the above problems has become imperative to develop the technology of alternate clean burning synthetic fuels.

As a key to this paper presentation topics idea we have made an attempt to replace conventional diesel blended with vegetable oil (pungamia). The performance and the emission characteristics of a DI(direct injection) naturally aspirated diesel engine has been studied under various proportional blends of the vegetable oil with conventional diesel. Its been operated on various loading condition and blending ratios of 20%, 40%, 60% respectively by heating the oil at an temperature of 60°C for the above blends.


presentation topics mechanical

Punga oil is a thick yellow-orange to brown oil which is extracted from seeds of pungamia tree. Yields of 25% of volume are possible using a mechanical expeller. The oil has a bitter taste and a disagreeable aroma, thus it is also used as a lubricant, water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries. The oil is know to have value in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, as well as human and animal skin diseases. Now it found its usage as an alternative substitute of diesel an gasoline in automobile vehicles. An effective substitute for diesel in the operation of diesel engines in rural areas.

presentation topics

karanj seeds







Specific gravity 0.9816
Viscosity 45 sec
Flash point 180°C
Fire point 210°C
Calorific value 7210 Kcal/Kg
Cetane No. 48
Total sulphur 1.6%
Self Ignition temperature 180°C
Smoke point 18 mm
Dirt Content 3.98%
Char value 0.37%
Boiling point 80°C
Freezing point 6°C


  • It reduces our dependence on foreign oil
  • It reduces air pollution
  • It is a renewable fuel.


Through this presentation topics, the present work reveals that it is possible to use Punga-Diesel combination as fuel in the diesel engine without any modification.

  • There is an increase in Brake thermal efficiency at medium and high loads. At low loads, there is a drop in brake thermal efficiency
  • The 40% Punga and 60% Diesel blend gives better fuel economy than other blends.

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