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ABSTRACT

Since the early seventies of the last century caused by the upcoming exhaust gas legislation and the energy crisis of that decade. With the necessity to reduce the CO2-output of the transportation sector a third extremely important reason entered the scene in the nineties especially in Europe. Under these aspects only those alternatives are sustainable which can make not only a positive contribution to clean air and energy security but also to global warming.

So the challenge for the future will be to bring renewable fuels to the transportation sector. The options we have are hydrogen, which on account of technical and economical barriers won’t have the maturity for market penetration within the next 2 decades and liquid biomass-based fuels. Bio fuels of the first generation are Ethanol and Biodiesel. Both can be blended to gasoline or to diesel. But these fuels if used in their pure form not only need a new engine application but also a new distribution infrastructure. Disadvantages of the 1st  generation are the low CO2   reduction potential for CO2 emissions and the relatively little yield of fuel amount per hectare arable land.

INTRODUCTION

Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. Conventional fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, propane, and natural gas), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium, as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors, and store their energy.

Biodiesel, bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, and other biomass sources.A fuel other than gasoline or diesel for powering motor vehicles, often with improved energy efficiency and pollution reduction features.

Example:   Electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, and fuel cells are examples of alternative fuel.

Contents

  • Ammonia
  • Biodiesel
  • Hydrogen fuel

Hydrogen vehicle

A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.

seminar topics mechanical
hydrogen vehicle

The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low energy content per unit volume, high tankage weights, very high storage vessel pressures, the storage, transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles, the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles, and the inefficiency of production process.

 

 

 

 

 

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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1 Comment

  1. Anelise says:

    great post. keep it up..and it will be very useful for the people who are looking for paper presentation topics..

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