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ABSTRACT

Emissions due to burning of fossil fuels have a great impact on the environment and global warming. Inevitable increase of the number of automobiles has become more and more a serious problem. Therefore emission and fuel economy regulations are becoming stricter around the world. To cope with these severe regulations on emissions and fuel consumption, great attention is gradually paid to lean combustion engines. Lean Burn Engines (LBE) achieves better fuel economy by improving thermal efficiency and reducing emissions. Since lean burn engines can reduce CO2 by Combustion, they are evaluated as a useful preventive measure of warming the globe.

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Lean Burn Engines

In this paper presentation topics, a 350cc single cylinder 4 strokes Bullet engine is taken as a test engine. The cylinder head is modified to have an additional spark plug and the piston with combustion chamber is coated with catalyst. A modified carburetor was used to supply lean mixture. The results obtained indicate a promising feature of improved performance, more mileage and low emission norms.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, development of low emission and low fuel consumption engine becomes more important because of running out of fossil fuels, air pollution and global warming up problems. Various efforts such as methanol, CNG, hydrogen intensified emission and fuel consumption are different facets of same kind of pursuit to conserve energy and reduce pollution. One of the Today’s ultimate requirements is developing engines with lower emission and good fuel economy. This paper throws light over Lean Burn Engines which have lower CO2 emission, good fuel economy, easiness of hydrocarbon after treatment if lean. NOx can be treated by catalyst. SI engines have advantages like high specific output, ease of maintenance etc. They also have certain drawbacks listing are high HC/CO emission, low Brake thermal efficiency. Lean Burn Engines brings us these advantages, with its drawbacks eliminated. Lean Burn Engines have their own problems which could be solved by various effects. An effort to introduce 2 spark plugs along with a catalyst coating in the combustion chamber is made whose results are discussed in this paper presentation topics.

DEFENITION

Lean-burn means pretty much what it says. It is a lean amount of fuel supplied to and burned in an engine’s combustion chamber. Normal air-to-fuel ratio is on the order of 15:1 (15 parts air to 1 part fuel). True lean-burn can go as high as 23:1.

PRINCIPLE

A lean burn mode is a way to reduce throttling losses. An engine in a typical vehicle is sized for providing the power desired for acceleration, but must operate well below that point in normal steady-speed operation. Ordinarily, the power is cut by partially closing a throttle. However, the extra work done in pumping air through the throttle reduces efficiency. If the fuel/air ratio is reduced, then lower power can be achieved with the throttle closer to fully open, and the efficiency during normal driving (below the maximum torque capability of the engine) can be higher.

The engines designed for lean burning can employ higher compression ratios and thus provide better performance, efficient fuel use and low exhaust hydrocarbon emissions than those found in conventional petrol engines. Ultra lean mixtures with very high air-fuel ratios can only be achieved by direct injection engines.

The main drawback of lean burning is that a complex catalytic converter system is required to reduce NOx emissions. Lean burn engines do not work well with modern 3-way catalytic converter—which require a pollutant balance at the exhaust port so they can carry out oxidation and reduction reactions—so most modern engines run at or near the stoichiometric point. Alternatively, ultra-lean ratios can reduce NOx emissions.

OBJECTIVE

  1. To develop a combustion chamber, called catalytic combustion chamber in order to make the combustion of lean mixture faster.
  2. Modify the existing combustion chamber suitable for fast burning of lean mixtures.
  3. To obtain increased efficiency and lower exhaust emissions.

ADVANTAGES OF LBE

  1. High energy efficiency.
  2. Lower CO/HC emissions.
  3. Ratio of specific heats approaches the value of air.
  4. Lesser tendency of Knocking.
  5. Low dissociation losses due to low combustion temperatures.
  6. Low heat transfer losses due to low peak temperature in the cycle.

PROBLEMS WITH LBE

  1. Difficulty in igniting the lean mixture.
  2. Lower flame speeds resulting in delayed ignition and higher cycle time losses.
  3. Torque fluctuations due to uneven mixture ratio distribution and cycle variation in combustion.
  4. Difficulty in delivering correct mixture ratio under varying conditions.

SOLUTIONS

  1. Suitable combustion chamber to create optimum turbulence and swirl to speed up combustion process.
  2. Locating combustion chamber in the hotter region of the cylinder.
  3. Increasing the compression ratio.
  4. Using Alternate fuels like H2, alcohol etc which have higher flame speeds.
  5. Catalytic coating to accelerate combustion process.
  6. Introducing multi point spark.

CONCEPT OF CATALYTIC COATED ENGINE

A catalytic engine is an internal combustion engine where the heat release is brought about by the use of catalyst. This definition includes engines where the combustion is commenced sustained or aided by the action of catalyst on the air/fuel mixture.The petrol engine suffers from relatively high fuel consumption  requires a high fuel consumption requires a high octane fuel and the untreated exhaust containing high concentrations of pollutants, mainly carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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