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Electrical Seminar Topics -Introduction

Magnetic levitation transport, or maglev, is a form of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles (especially trains) using electromagnetic force. This method can be faster than wheeled mass transit systems, potentially reaching velocities comparable to turboprop and jet aircraft (900 km/h, 600 mph). The highest recorded speed of a maglev train is 581 km/h (361 mph).

Electrical Seminar Topics
MAGNETIC LEVITATED TRAINS

Technologies of Operation

  1. The Primary types of maglev technology are:
  2. Electromagnetic suspension (EMS)
  3. MDS (Magneto-dynamic Suspension)
  4. Electrodynamic suspension (EDS)
  5. Inductrack System (Permanent Magnet EDS)

Basic working of Maglev (EMS system)

The Maglev Track

The magnetized coil running along the track, called a guide way, repels the large magnets on the train’s undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate between 0.39 and 3.93 inches (1 to 10 cm) above the guide way. Once the train is levitated, power is supplied to the coils within the guide way walls to create a unique system of magnetic fields that pull and push the train along the guide way. The electric current supplied to the coils in the guide way walls is constantly alternating to change the polarity of the magnetized coils. This change in polarity causes the magnetic field in front of the train to pull the vehicle forward, while the magnetic field behind the train adds more forward thrust.

Electrical engineering seminar Topics
THE MAGLEV TRACK

1)The Levitation System

Support electromagnets built into the undercarriage and along the entire length of the train pull it up to the guideway electromagnets, which are called ferromagnetic reaction rails. The guidance magnets placed on each side of the train keep it centered along the track and guide the train along. All the electromagnets are controlled electronically in a precise manner. It ensures the train is always levitated at a distance of 8 to 10 mm from the guideway even when it isn’t moving. This levitation system is powered by onboard batteries, which are charged up by the linear generator when the train travels.

Electrical Seminar Topics
LEVITATION SYSTEM

2) The Propulsion System

For propulsion and braking of a MagLev, a long electromagnetic stator is installed underneath both sides of the guideway facing the train’s support electromagnets, which resemble a motor’s rotor. The construction of this system looks like the stator of a rotating motor was cut open and stretched along the guideway undersides and the rotor part is built into the undercarriage of a train. The three-phase winded stator generates an electromagnetic travelling field and moves the train when it is supplied with an alternating current. The electronmagnetic field from the support electromagnets (rotor) pulls it along. The magnetic field direction and speed of the stator and the rotor are synchronized. The MagLev’s speed can vary from standstill to full operating speed by simply adjusting the frequency of the alternating current. To bring the train to a full stop, the direction of the travelling field is reversed. Even during braking, there is no mechanical contact between the stator and the rotor. Instead of consuming energy, the Transrapid system acts as a generator, converting the breaking energy into electricity, which can be used elsewhere.

Seminar topics for electrical engineering
THE PROPULSION SYSTEM

Comparison of Maglev  with conventional trains

  1. Due to the lack of physical contact between the track and the vehicle, there is no rolling friction, leaving only air resistance. (Although maglev trains also experience electromagnetic drag, this is relatively small at high speeds.
  2. The weight of the large electromagnets in EMS and EDS designs is a major design issue. A very strong magnetic field is required to levitate a massive train. For this reason one research path is using superconductors to improve the efficiency of the electromagnets.
  3. The high speed of some maglev trains translates to more sound due to air displacement, which gets louder as the trains go faster. A study found that high speed maglev trains are 5 dB noisier than traditional trains. At low speeds, however, maglev trains are nearly silent
  4. No braking issues and overhead wire wear are problems.
  5. As linear motors must fit within or straddle their track over the full length of the train, track design is challenging for anything other than point-to-point services.
  6. Curves must be gentle and avoid camber.
  7. Switches are very long and need care to avoid breaks in current.
  8. Maglev needs very fast-responding control systems to maintain a stable height above the track; this needs careful design in the event of a failure in order to avoid crashing into the track during a power fluctuation.

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JJ

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