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Projects Abstract

It is necessary to have an intelligent system which identifies the accident before it happens and informs the driver to be alert or to regulate the speed of the vehicle (say train) and to stop it, if it is very close to the collision.

Working of the Project

This electronics projects is implemented by connecting Ultrasonic Sensors in front of the train.  The Ultrasonic sensors will give the distance between the present train and the train which is coming in the opposite direction.  The distance is constantly monitored by a micro controller and when the distance is close, it is programmed to regulate the speed and also to stop the train if it is necessary.

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For this electronics projects demonstration we have implemented a small model  with a single sensor fixed in it.  The same operation is done for all the trains.

This is diagrammatically shown below:

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Parameter  Monitoring

Since our electronics projects is related to the vehicles, in addition to the mentioned aim we can also monitor the temperature of the Vehicle.  The engine temperature is measured by using the thermistor which is connected to an ADC of  PIC Micro controller.

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Block diagram

Block Diagram Explanation

Power Supply

Used to power the PIC Micro controller.  This is generated from the incoming AC supply of 230V.

 Stepper Power Supply:

Used to run the Stepper Motor.  This is generated from the incoming AC supply of 230V.

Stepper Driver and Optocoupler

The TTL Level Pulse signal from the controller is not sufficient to run the stepper motor as it requires the current of 1.2 amps. So the signals from the controller are buffered and isolated and amplified using transistors. Then the amplified voltage is applied to the stepper motor. The stepper driver board does this job.

Ultrasonic Sensors

This ultrasonic sensors are used to measure the distance between the current train and the opposite train.  The ultrasonic sensor has a transmitter and receiver placed side by side. The ultrasonic sound waves are transmitted, and if there is any obstacle, the waves are reflected back and it is sensed by the receiver.  The unit then calculates the travel time of the wave and converts it into distance.

Thermistor and Potential divider

It is a transducer which is used to measure the temperature of engine.  The resistance of the device varies according to the atmospheric temperature. The resistance variation from the thermistor is converted into its corresponding voltage variation using this voltage divider circuit.

LCD Display

A 16X2 row LCD Display is used to display the parameters sensed and the events happening.

PIC Micro controller

The PIC 16F877 Micro controller is used to process the inputs from the ultrasonic sensor and it reduces the speed of the train or stops the train.  It also senses the temperature and displays it in the LCD display.  All this process are controlled by the embedded C program which is written and stored into the controllers memory. The micro controller features are given below.

Core Features

  • • High performance RISC CPU
  • • Only 35 single word instructions to learn
  • • All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are of two cycles
  • • Operating speed: DC – 20 MHz clock input and DC – 200 ns instruction cycle
  • • Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM)
  • • Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources)
  • • Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes
  • • Power-on Reset (POR)
  • • Power-up Timer (PWRT) and   Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
  • • Processor read/write access to program memory
  • • Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V
  • • Low-power consumption

Peripheral Features

  • • Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
  • • Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler, can be incremented during SLEEP
  • • Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler
  • • 10-bit multi-channel Analog-to-Digital converter
  • • Synchronous Serial Port (SSP) with SPI (Master mode) and 12C(Master/Slave)
  • • Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART/SCI) with 9-bit address detection
  • • Parallel Slave Port (PSP) 8-bits wide, with external RD, WR and CS controls (40/44-pin only)
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Cost estimation

Conclusion and future enhancements

In this electronics projects we have used ultrasonic sensors for detecting the opposite train.  This distance can be increased by putting long range ultrasonic level sensors.  We can also incorporate a GPS and GSM Modules for preventing train accidents.  The GPS Lets us to know the present location and GSM Sends it to another train. Thus if the two trains are at the same location then the train is immediately stopped.

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This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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