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Electronics Seminar Topics -Introduction

Over the last decade, “electronic sensing” or “e-sensing” technologies have undergone important developments from a technical and commercial point of view. The expression “electronic sensing” refers to the capability of reproducing human senses using sensor arrays and pattern recognition systems. For the last 15 years as of 2007, research has been conducted to develop technologies, commonly referred to as electronic nose, that could detect and recognize odors and flavors. An electronic nose is a device intended to detect odours or flavour. The stages of the recognition process are similar to human olfaction and are performance for identification, comparison, quantification and other applications.

Electronic Nose working principle

The electronic nose was developed in order to mimic human olfaction that functions as a non-separative mechanism: i.e. an odour / flavour is perceived as a global fingerprint. Electronic Noses include three major parts: a sample delivery system, a detection system, a computing system.

The sample delivery system enables the generation of the headspace (volatile compounds) of a sample, which is the fraction analyzed. The system then injects this headspace into the detection system of the electronic nose. The sample delivery system is essential to guarantee constant operating conditions.The detection system, which consists of a sensor set, is the “reactive” part of the instrument. When in contact with volatile compounds, the sensors react, which means they experience a change of electrical properties. Each sensor is sensitive to all volatile molecules but each in their specific way. Most electronic noses use sensor-arrays that react to volatile compounds on contact: the adsorption of volatile compounds on the sensor surface causes a physical change of the sensor. A specific response is recorded by the electronic interface transforming the signal into a digital value. Recorded data are then computed based on statistical models.

The more commonly used sensors include metal oxide semiconductors (MOS), conducting polymers (CP), quartz crystal microbalance, surface acoustic wave (SAW), and field effect transistors (MOSFET). In recent years, other types of electronic noses have been developed that utilize mass spectrometry or ultra fast gas chromatography as a detection system. The computing system works to combine the responses of all of the sensors, which represents the input for the data treatment. This part of the instrument performs global fingerprint analysis and provides results and representations that can be easily interpreted.

Electronics seminar Topics on Electronic Nose

Electronic Nose Concept -Electronics Projects

To perform analysis, an electronic nose need to be trained with qualified samples so as to build a database of reference. Then the instrument can recognize new samples by comparing volatile compounds fingerprint to those contained in its database. Thus they can perform qualitative or quantitative analysis.

Recent Advances

  • Detection of perineal odours associated with oestrus in cows.
  • Detection of lung cancer in humans.
  • NASA uses enose for detecting ammonia leakage in spacecrafts.

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JJ

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