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ABSTRACT

In this world of fast depleting natural resources and environment degradation, one way to secure our future is to use our resources as economically as possible and reduce the vehicle emission to the minimum. In this direction the immediate effect is to make better fuel economic systems and gradually shift to better and cleaner power harvesting sources (electricity) and techniques (hydrogen fuel cells). There are continuous improvements in almost every part of the vehicle and newer technologies are employed to achieve the norms. The ultimate goal of any automobile manufacturer will be to achieve ZE (Zero Emission) or at least ULE (Ultra Low Emissions). This project is an overview of the Hybrid Electric Vehicles, which bridge the traditional power systems with the future electric power systems.

Mechanical presentation topics on hybrid vehicles

DEFINITION OF THE HYBRID SYSTEM

The hybrid systems as the name suggests, is a combination of power sources. The hybrid vehicle is an automotive with a modified power train characterized with two prime movers. The prime movers could be IC engine and electric traction motor.

Operating cycle with recommended gear position:

It is a fact that a vehicle will have maximum performance only when it runs at the rated design conditions. But as we can see, the road conditions often limits the performance. This cannot be eliminated by modifying the engine design or any other means but only by a Hybrid system.

The Hybrid system can utilize its electric traction system (which is evidently a better, clean, relatively more efficient) to drive the vehicle when the vehicle is running at the non-design conditions and operate the engine when the conditions are suitable to achieve good engine performance.

BASIC COMPONENTS OF HYBRID SYSTEM

The basic features of any hybrid electric vehicle are:-

  • Power source
  • Power storage
  • Drive unit
  • Control unit

Power source:

The power source could be any current trend IC engine.

Power storage:

The hybrid electric vehicles are provided with batteries of high energy, high current density and with minimum possible weight such as the Lithium Metal Hydride LiMH batteries

Drive unit:

Advanced electric motor that could act as a generator The hybrid vehicles are currently utilizing DC disc motors, AC synchronous motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous motors, etc.,

Control unit:

Advanced Electronic Control Unit(ECU) based control system to control the overall system.

CLASSIFICATION OF HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

 Hybrid Electric Vehicles can be broadly classified into three types namely,

  1. Two-axle system
  2. Series Hybrid system (Hybrid)
  3. Parallel Hybrid system (fully Hybrid)

ADVANTAGES OF HYBRIDS

  • Simplifies the drive train
  • Eliminates the starting device (clutch)
  • Achieves variable transmission
  • Improves fuel economy and performance of the engine

TOYOTA PRIUS

SPECIFICATIONS

Gasoline Engine
    Type Aluminum double overhead cam (DOHC) 16-valve
VVT-i 4-cylinder
    Displacement 1.5 liters (1,497 cc)
    Bore x stroke 75.0 mm x 84.7 mm
    Compression ratio 13.0:1
    Valvetrain 4-valve/cylinder with Variable Valve Timing with intelligence (VVT-i)
    Induction system Multi-point EFI with Electronic Throttle Control System with intelligence (ETCS-i)
    Ignition system Electronic, with Toyota Direct Ignition (TDI)
    Power output 76 hp @ 5,000 rpm (57 kW @ 5,000 rpm)
    Torque 82 lb.-ft. @ 4,200 rpm (111 N-m @ 4,200 rpm)
    Emission ratings Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (AT-PZEV)
Electric Motor
    Motor type Permanent magnet AC synchronous motor
    Power output 67 hp @ 1,200-1,540 rpm (50 kW @ 1,200-1,540 rpm)
    Torque 295 lb.-ft. @ 0-1,200 rpm (400 N-m @ 0-1,200 rpm)
    Voltage 500V maximum
 Traction Battery
    Type Sealed Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni-MH)
    Power output 28 hp (21 kW)
    Voltage 201.6V
Hybrid System Net Power 110 hp (82 kW)
Mechanical/Performance
Transmission Electronically controlled continuously variable transmission (ECVT)
Suspension
    Front Independent MacPherson strut with stabilizer bar
    Rear Torsion beam with stabilizer bar
Steering Rack-and-pinion with electric power-assist
Turning circle (ft.) 34.1
Brakes  Power-assisted ventilated front disc/rear drum with Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) and integrated regenerative braking

INFINITELY VARIABLE TRANSMISSION (IVT)

The IVT is a torque-controlled transmission. The automatic variation in the output torque and speed are obtained by the IVT whose functions are similar to that of a fluid coupling and a torque convertor. This IVT system can replace the conventional slipping clutch and gearbox and further could achieve a variable transmission.

Mechanical seminar paper Hybrid vehicles
Actual model of the infinite variable transmission

Construction

The important components of the IVT are

  1. Full Toroidal Variator
  2. Epicyclic gear train
  3. Control system
Mechanical presentation topics on hybrid
IVT- Infinitely Variable Transmission
mechanical presentation topics on hybrid vehicles
Full Toroidal Variator

CONSTRUCTION

  • The Full Toroidal Variator is at the heart of the IVT
  • The Variator consists of two Toroidal shaped disc connected to the input shaft driven by the engine
  • Each input disc is paired in the input shaft with an identical output disc
  • The output discs are free to rotate on the input shaft and they drive a fixed ratio chain which transmits the output from the Variator
  • Between each pair of input and output discs there are three rollers
  • The rollers are mounted on carriages and connected to hydraulic pistons
  • The high regime clutch is connected to the drive wheels and the Variator output

WORKING

  • Power from the input disc is transferred by the rollers to the output disc.
  • The power transfer takes place through the traction fluid whose viscosity at the interface between the discs and the rollers increases due to the pressure created.
  • The increase in viscosity makes the fluid highly resistant to shearing and it becomes the power transmission medium between the disc and the roller.
  • The hydraulic pistons apply force on each of the rollers that is reacted to at the disc.
  • The net result of the forces is to apply a torque to the road wheels and on the engine.
  • At normal operation the hydraulic pressure on the rollers does not set a ratio of the Variator.
  • The ratio is a direct consequence of the speeds of the engine and the road wheel.
  • The driving force applied to the vehicles road wheels is controlled by the force applied to the roller carriage pistons

CONCLUSION

Thus in this presentation topics on hybrid vehicles, the evolution of the modern vehicles to utilize the fuel efficiently and give a better performance is achieved by the hybrid systems, involving a modified definition of the simple epicyclic gear train. These Hybrid systems will bridge the current technology with the future evolutions and help in achieving a smoother transition in technology.

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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