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Mechanical Seminar Topics -ABSTRACT

This Mechanical Seminar Topics paper presentation deals with the affects of cryogenic processes on metals and its applications in industries. As it is known the most important problems faced by the industries are the wear and tear of the machine parts. This wear of the machine parts not only increases the cost of production but also the time wasted for the replacement process.  In this paper I would like to explore the enhancement in strength and durability that would be gained by cryogenically treating those machine parts.

Cryogenics is the ultra low temperature processing of materials to enhance their desired metallurgical and structural properties. Cryogenic treatment process is the treating of a wide variety of materials, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals, metallic alloys, carbides, plastics, and ceramics. These ultra-cold temperatures, below -310°F, will greatly increase the strength and wear life of all types of vehicle components, castings and cutting tools. In addition, other benefits include reduced maintenance, repairs and replacement of tools and components, reduced vibrations, rapid and more uniform heat dissipation, and improved conductivity.

Here in this context I shall purpose to explain about the purpose of cryogenic treatment and what happens in the metal structure along with its advantages and some of its applications.


Cryogenics have been derived from the Greek word “KRUOS” (frost) and “GENICS” meaning to produce very low temperatures. At the end of eighteenth century liquefaction of some gasses was achieved and that opened the door to deep cryogenic temperatures. Some experiments with steel started at the beginning of 20th century. The results were quite discouraging because, in most of cases, the material shattered or broke due to the thermal shock when the steel was directly put into liquefied gas. After the Second World War these tests were abandoned until the seventies when aerospace industry took up this technology again and the cryogenic treatment started to be developed as a new industrial process.

Today cryogenic treatment would be regarded as one of the most important processes in the field of industries, and it is the ultra modern type of processing to make the metals more resistant to wear and more durable. The process can be used to improve the properties of a wide range of materials. Steel (cold working, hot working, HSS, inox…), aluminium, copper, carbide, ceramics and even some polymers can be improved with the treatment. The results which are obtained depend basically on the treated material and on the application. The most remarkable ones are wear resistance increase and fatigue life improvement. The use of this treatment is extremely environmentally friendly, as absolutely no waste is produced during the process.

Mechanical Seminar Topics
Mechanical Seminar Topics -Cryogenic-Processing Equipment

Some companies have taken steps to move the industry forward. One step in that direction is involvement in the Cryogenic Society of America, Inc. (CSA) (Oak Park, IL). Compared to other cryogenic technologies, however, cryogenic processing is considered low tech. Another step intended to move the industry forward was the recent formation of an ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) (Materials Park, OH) committee on cryogenics to address the need for more information, standardization, and training.


  • Increases abrasive wear resistance.
  • Requires only one permanent treatment.
  • Creates a denser molecular structure. The result is a larger contact surface area that reduces friction, heat and wear.
  • Changes the equipment’s entire structure, not just the surface. Subsequent refinishing operations or re-grinds do not affect permanent improvements.
  • Eliminates thermal shock through a dry, computer controlled process.
  • Transforms almost all soft retained austenite to hard martensite.
  • Forms micro fine carbide fillers to enhance large carbide structures.
  • Increases durability or wear life.
  • Decreases residual stresses in tool steels.
  • Decreases brittleness.
  • Increases tensile strength, toughness and stability coupled with the release of internal stresses.


It has been proven to increase the strength and durability of the material being treated, relieve stress, create a more uniform material, and micro-smooth surface. The molecular structure is “filled in” increasing the strength of the material by up to 400%! Also, the material will not be damaged and it will retain its shape. The sharpness will not only last longer, but you will be able to sharpen more times with less removal of material. Each sharpening will demonstrate the benefits of the treatment.

Since cryogenics is a one-time treatment affecting the part to the core, we can re-sharpen the tool as many times as necessary without having to re-cryogenically treat the part. Therefore, you may wish to treat new tools or tools that have not been worn excessively to obtain the maximum amount of life for the least amount of cost. There is no need of  re-cryogenically treating a part unless it has been reheated to its fluid state. Not only the cutting tools last longer the same performance is obtained.

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