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Mechanical Seminar Topics -INTRODUCTION

Steam is an indispensable means of delivering energy. Low toxicity, high efficiency, most of the heat content of steam is stored as latent heat hence large quantities of heat can be transferred efficiently at constant temperature. Steam system operation is divided into four categories- Generation, distribution, end use, recovery.

Fluidized bed boiler is the newest and cleanest way of generating steam. The traditional grate fuel firing systems have got limitations and are techno-economically unavailable to meet the challenges of future. Fluidized bed combustion has emerged as a viable alternative and has significant advantages over conventional firing system and offers multiple benefits – compact boiler design, fuel flexibility, higher combustion efficiency and reduced emission of noxious pollutants such as SOx and NOx..

MECHANISM OF A FLUIDIZED BED BOILER

When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream – the bed is called “fluidized”. With further increase in air velocity, there is bubble formation, vigorous turbulence, rapid mixing and formation of dense defined bed surface. The bed of solid particles exhibits the properties of a boiling liquid and assumes the appearance of a fluid – “bubbling fluidized bed”.

At higher velocities, bubbles disappear, and particles are blown out of the bed. Therefore, some amounts of particles have to be recirculated to maintain a stable system – “circulating fluidized bed”.

This principle of fluidization is illustrated in Figure 6.1.

Mechanical Seminar Topics

Mechanical seminar topics-PRINCIPLE OF FLUIDIZATION

Fluidization depends largely on the particle size and the air velocity. The mean solids velocity increases at a slower rate than does the gas velocity. The difference between the mean solid velocity and mean gas velocity is called as slip velocity. Maximum slip velocity between the solids and the gas is desirable for good heat transfer and intimate contact.

If sand particles in a fluidized state is heated to the ignition temperatures of coal, and coal is injected continuously into the bed, the coal will burn rapidly and bed attains a uniform temperature. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) takes place at about 840OC to 950OC. Since this temperature is much below the ash fusion temperature, melting of ash and associated problems are avoided.

The lower combustion temperature is achieved because of high coefficient of heat transfer due to rapid mixing in the fluidized bed and effective extraction of heat from the bed through in-bed heat transfer tubes and walls of the bed. The gas velocity is maintained between minimum fluidization velocity and particle entrainment velocity. This ensures stable operation of the bed and avoids particle entrainment in the gas stream.

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