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Mechanical Seminar Topics ABSTRACT

In the past engineering industries have witnessed a rapid growth in the development of harder and difficult-to-machine materials such as hastalloy, nitralloy, waspalloy, nimonics, carbides, stainless steel, heat-resisting steels, and many other high-strength-temperature-resistant (HSTR) alloys, These materials find wide application in aerospace, nuclear engineering, and other industries owing to their high strength-to-weight ratio, hardness, and heat-resisting qualities. For such materials the conventional edged tool machining, in spite of recent technological advancement, is highly uneconomical and the degree of accuracy and surface finish attainable are poor. Besides, machining of these materials into complex shapes is difficult, time-consuming and sometimes impossible. Recent Trend Manufacturing of Smart Material are in the sense that they do not employ a conventional or traditional tool for metal removal, instead, they directly utilize some form of energy for metal machining.

CONTENTS

  • INTRODUCTION
  • TYPES OF UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINES
  • LASER BEAM MACHINING
  • WORKING PRINCIPLE
  • MACHINING PROCESSES USING LASER TECHNOLOGY
    • Laser cutting
    • Laser bending
    • Laser tube cutting
    • Laser engraving
    • Diamond drilling
  • ADVANTAGES OF LASER
  • APPLICATIONS OF LASER
  • LASER CUTTING vs. WATER JET CUTTING
  • LASER CUTTING vs. PLASMA CUTTING
  • CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION

The basic principle of metal removal in the conventional methods of machining involves the use of some sort of tool which is harder than the workpiece and is subject to wear.  The metal removal is by mechanical energy through the use of physical force (the tool and the workpiece being in direct contact with each other) which shears the chips. That is, the conventional machining methods involves removal of metal by compression shear chip formation.

  • Metal removal by chip formation is an expensive and difficult process.
  • Proper holding of the work piece and to avoid its distortion are very important, due to the very large cutting forces involved.
  • Due to the large cutting forces, and large amount of heat gene-rated at the tool-work piece interface, undesirable deformation and residual stresses are set up in the work piece. These undesirable effects have to be removed afterwards.

Unconventional machines are generally non-mechanical don’t produce chips or a lay pattern on the work surface and often involves new energy modes. There is no direct physical contact between the tool and the work piece and so, the tool need not be harder than the job.

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LASER ENGRAVING

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Laser marked electronic part

Laser engraving is the practice of using lasers to engrave or mark an object. The technique can be very technical and complex, and often a computer system is used to drive the movements of the laser head. Despite this complexity, very precise and clean engravings can be achieved at a high rate. The technique does not involve tool bits which contact the engraving surface and wear out. This is considered an advantage over alternative engraving technologies where bit heads have to be replaced regularly.

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ADVANTAGES OF LASER

  • Much wider range of machinable materials
  • Non-contact machining with almost no force impact to the surface
  • No tool wear
  • Material removal rate controllable down to the nanometer scale
  • Smaller heat affected zones and less sub-surface damage
  • Final quality machining in one process and with one tool only

APPLICATIONS OF LASER

  • Drilling small holes and apertures into difficult machinable materials (e.g. IC-boards, semiconductor substrates, bio-medical devices)
  • Micromilling (laminar material removal) of grooves, channels, webs, recesses (e.g. tiny moulds, fluid structures, lab-on-the-chip devices, miniaturized bio-chemical reactors, stents)
  • Production of micro-sieves
  • Cutting and structuring of thin foils
  • Marking and dicing of glass wafers and integrated circuits on semiconductor wafers
  • Cutting or repairing masks for processes in the semiconductor, display and OLED technologies
  • Marking or repairing lithograpy masks
  • Structuring semiconductor wafers and solar cells.

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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