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Mechanical Seminar Topics -ABSTRACT

Biodiesel refers to diesel equivalent preprocessed fuel derived from biological sources(such as vegetable oils and and animal fats) which can be used in an unmodified diesel Biodiesel production is a modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of petroleum diesel and environmental advantages. This paper presents a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. Biodiesel from karanja oil was produced by alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Performance of IC engine using karanja biodiesel blending with diesel and with various blending ratios has been evaluated. The engine performance studies were conducted with a prony brake-diesel engine set up. Parameters like speed of engine, fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combinations of dual fuel. Brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were calculated. The test results indicate that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be used in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. This paper also refers to the various types of biodiesel. Its general manufacturing process and the scope for biodiesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel , karanja , performance test on ic engines


Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics.

Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind two products-methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products . Biodiesel is better for the environment because it is made from renewable resources and has lower emission compared to petroleum diesel.

The transesterification is achieved with monohydric alcohols like methanol and ethanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Biodiesel and its blends with petroleum-based diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines without any significant modifications to the engines. The advantages of biodiesel are that it displaces petroleum thereby reducing global warming gas emissions, tail pipe particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and other air toxics. Biodiesel improves lubricity and reduces premature wearing of fuel pumps. Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the Clean Air Act. Hence making it a very clean and safe alternative to meet the upcoming energy requirement .

Mechanical Seminar Topics
Mechanical Seminar Topics showing manufacture of biodiesel from Animal fats and vegetable oil



  • Biodiesels can be used in pure form ( B100) or may be blended with petroleum diesel at any concentration in most modern diesel engines. Biodiesel will degrade rubber gaskets and hoses in vehicles ( mostly found in vehicles manufactured  before1992) , although these tend to wear out naturally and most likely will have already been replaced with FKM , which is non-reactive to biodiesel. However , this is more likely to occur where methanol used to catalyze the transeserification process has not been properly removed afterwards .
  • Biodiesel’s higher lubricity index compared to petrodiesel is an advantage and can contribute to longer fuel injector life . biodiesel is a better solvent than  petrodiesel , and has been known to break down deposits of residue in  the fuel lines of vehicles that have been run on petrodiesel. As a result , fuel filters and injectors may become clogged with particulates if a quick transition to pure biodiesel is made , as biodiesel “cleans” the engine in the process . Therefore , it is recommended to change the fuel filter within 600-800 miles after first switching to a biodiesel blend.
  • Pure , non-blended biodiesel can be poured into any diesel engine. Modern and the most latest of cars have started to use biodiesels intheir conventional diesel engines .To the latest the Mercedes Benz E-320 diesel (2007) model uses biodiesel as its fuel, Volkswagen has also started to use biofuels in its cars and has plans to launch a new  SUV with a  biofuel specific engine in 2008. In India M&M in the mid 2007 launched  Asia’s first SUV which runs on biodiesel in M&M Scorpio


  • For all the fuel samples tested, torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency reach maximum values at 70% load.
  • The dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.
  • The cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. Hence biodiesel is a promising alternative for the energy crisis.

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