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ABSTRACT

Increasing industrialization and modernization of world lead to steep rise in petroleum cost. Also with the present consumption rate, deplete all petroleum resources within a decade or two. In addition, combustion of fossil fuel accumulates greenhouse gas emissions and leads to rapid rate of global warming. By spending more amount of money we import not only petroleum fuel but also much emission.

Considering these disaster effects many alternative fuels were identified and tested successfully in IC engines. Generally bio fuels are the oils obtained from the living plant sources. These oils may be obtained from resin and plant seeds. Plant oils are renewable and have low sulfur in nature. As the bio fuels are more expensive than fossil fuels, the wide spread use of bio fuel was restrained from its use in I.C engines. The use of vegetable oil in diesel engine has been identified well before. However, despite the technical feasibility, vegetable oils as fuel could not get acceptance, as they were more expensive than petroleum fuels.

Also, the vegetable oils were all extremely viscous, with viscosities ranging 10–20 times greater than diesel fuel. This leads to the retardation in scientific efforts to investigate the further acceptability of vegetable oil as fuel. These fuels take away more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during their production than is added by combustion. Therefore, it alleviates the increasing carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. In view of the potential properties, large number of investigations has been carried out internationally in the area of vegetable oils as fuel. Some of the vegetable oils from farm and forest origin have been identified.

The most predominantly sunflower, safflower, soyabean, cottonseed, winter rape, canola and peanut oil have been reported as appropriate substitute of petroleum based fuels. Since, the production cost of vegetable oils are slightly lower than those of alcohols and plant oil esters (bio diesel), it can be suggested that direct application of crude vegetable oils would be most advantageous.

The vegetable oils are found to be promising alternative fuels because of their renewable, eco-friendly and can be produced easily in rural areas. The cost of edible oil is some what more.

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Alternative fuels-Mechanical seminar topics presentation topics

The neat vegetable oil (eucalyptus) is not suitable to use as the fuel directly in IC engines:

Generally, in diesel engine, straight chain paraffin fuels are preferred for better ignition quality. But due to the large molecular mass and complex chemical structure, vegetable oils are not directly suitable for diesel engine application. This itern leads to problems related to combustion and atomization in the injector systems of a diesel engine.

 Due to the high viscosity, the long-term operation of the engine with vegetable oils normally introduces the development of gumming, the formation of injector deposits, ring sticking and problems related to the lubricating oils. That is the reason why the diesel oil cannot be replaced by neat vegetable oil without fuel modification and engine modifications. Therefore, the reduction of viscosity of vegetable oils is of prime importance to make it a suitable alternative fuel for diesel engines. The problem of high viscosity of vegetable oils can be reduced in several ways, such as transesterification, micro emulsification, preheating the oils and blending with other fuels such as diesel, oxygenated organic compounds, and methanol.

ADVANTAGES

The advantages of vegetable oils over Diesel fuel:

  • Ready availability,
  • Renewability,
  • Higher heat content (about 88% of Diesel fuel),
  • Lower Sulphur content,
  • Lower aromatic content,
  • Biodegradability.

DISADVANTAGES

The disadvantages of vegetable oils over Diesel fuel:

    • Higher viscosity,
    • Lower volatility,
    • The reactivity of unsaturated hydrocarbon chains.

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JJ

This is Mr.Jose John, 21 yrs old guy, currently pursuing final year mechanical engineering, now become an enthusiastic blogger and a successful entrepreneur.
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